Fitzroy Island is one of 600 islands on the Great Barrier Reef. As Fitzroy Island used to be part of the mainland, the rocks are the same granite as on the mainland. Fitzroy Island is located on the Inner Barrier of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef and it is part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

Fitzroy Island is a part of the coastal mountain range of Malbon Thompson Mountain Range located behind Cairns, approximately 10,000 years ago Fitzroy Island was connected to the mainland. When the Ice Age ended the ice caps melted and the ocean rose an estimated 100 m, and the valley between Fitzroy and the other mountain peaks flooded leaving an isolated island. Fitzroy is actually the top of a submerged mountain. Most of the island’s water comes from a natural freshwater spring originating in the Tablelands near Mareeba, and surfacing in the National Park bush land behind the main complex.
Fitzroy Island is located approx. 35 kilometres (18 nautical miles) south east of Cairns.  Fitzroy Island enjoys the tropical climate of North Queensland, 60% of rainfall occurs during the wet season (January to March). Air temperatures range in summer from 24 – 31 degrees c and in winter from 19 – 25 degrees c.